The piano, a remarkable instrument with a rich history, is one of the most versatile and beloved musical instruments in the world. From classical compositions to jazz improvisations, the piano’s wide range of notes and ability to play multiple parts simultaneously has made it integral to many genres of music.

Understanding the various parts of a piano can greatly enhance your appreciation for this wonderful instrument.

Whether you’re a musician looking to improve your technical understanding, a future piano owner preparing for your investment, or simply an enthusiast wanting to deepen your knowledge, exploring the intricacies of a piano’s construction offers valuable insight.

Each part, both external and internal, plays a crucial role in producing the beautiful, resonant sound that makes the piano so distinctive.

By learning about these parts, you not only gain a deeper understanding of how a piano works, but also develop a greater appreciation for the craftsmanship that goes into each instrument.

Related: 13 Types Of Pianos and Their Uses

External Parts of a Piano

piano anatomy


The keyboard is arguably the most recognizable part of a piano. It consists of 88 keys, both white and black, which represent different musical notes.

When these keys are pressed, they trigger a mechanism inside the piano that causes a corresponding string to vibrate, producing sound. The white keys represent the seven major notes (A-G), while the black keys represent sharps and flats.


Pianos typically have two or three pedals that serve different functions. The sustain pedal, usually on the right, allows the strings to continue vibrating even after you release the keys, creating a sustained sound.

The soft pedal, often on the left, reduces the volume and slightly changes the tone by moving the hammers closer to the strings. Some pianos also have a middle pedal, called the sostenuto pedal, which sustains only the notes that are being held down when the pedal is pressed.


The lid of a piano, found in grand pianos, serves a dual purpose. When closed, it protects the internal components of the piano from dust and damage.

When open, it helps project the sound towards the audience, enhancing the volume and richness of the instrument’s tone.

Music Desk/Stand

The music desk, or stand, is a vital part of the piano for musicians. It’s designed to hold sheet music or books, providing a stable and easily readable platform for musicians to follow along with their pieces.

This feature enables pianists to focus on playing the music, rather than worrying about keeping their music sheets in place.


The legs of a piano are sturdy, often beautifully crafted pieces that support the weight of the instrument.

On a grand piano, there are typically three legs, two at the curved side and one at the straight, shorter end.

Upright pianos usually have two front legs, which are more for decorative purposes, as the piano’s weight is supported mainly by its back structure.

The design of the legs can vary widely, from simple and sleek to ornately carved, depending on the style of the piano. They are typically made from solid wood to support the substantial weight of the piano.


The wheels, also known as casters, are found on some pianos to facilitate moving the instrument. They are especially common on grand pianos, which are too heavy to lift without specialized equipment. The wheels allow the piano to be rolled carefully to a new location.

However, moving a piano, even with wheels, should be done with extreme care to avoid damaging the instrument or the floor. It’s often best to hire professional piano movers who have the necessary equipment and expertise to move the piano safely.

The Internal Mechanics of a Piano


The soundboard is a crucial part of the piano that amplifies the vibrations from the strings. It’s typically made of spruce wood and is strategically positioned to resonate when the strings vibrate, thus enhancing the volume and richness of the sound produced.


Strings are the heart of a piano’s sound production. They are stretched across the frame, and when struck by the hammers, they vibrate at specific frequencies to produce musical notes.

Each note on a piano typically corresponds to one, two, or three strings. The thickness, length, and tension of the strings all influence the pitch of the note.


Hammers in a piano are small, felt-covered wooden mallets that strike the strings when a key is pressed.

The force with which they hit the strings controls the volume of the sound: a swift, hard strike produces a loud note, while a gentle hit results in a softer sound.


Dampers serve to stop the vibration of the strings when you release a key, effectively ending the sound.

They are felt-covered blocks that rest against the strings, preventing them from vibrating until lifted by the action of pressing a key or using the sustain pedal.

Pin Block

The pin block, also known as the wrest plank, is a crucial component that holds the tuning pins in place. These pins, around which the strings are wound, can be tightened or loosened to adjust the pitch of each string.

The pin block must be robust and durable to maintain the high tension of the strings and keep the piano in tune.

Action Frame

The action frame houses the mechanical components that translate the pressing of a key into a hammer striking a string.

This includes the keys, hammers, dampers, and many other small parts that work together to control the timing and force of each note. Understanding the action frame is crucial to understanding how a piano works and how to maintain and repair it.

Cast Iron Plate

The cast iron plate, also known as the frame or harp, is a large, heavy component that sits atop the soundboard in a piano.

It provides the necessary strength to withstand the enormous tension exerted by the stretched strings (which can total up to 20 tons in a grand piano).

The plate also plays a role in the overall sound of the piano, as it helps reflect the vibrations of the strings back into the soundboard.

Treble Bridge

The treble bridge is a wooden piece that transfers the vibrations from the strings to the soundboard.

The strings pass over the bridge and when they vibrate, these vibrations are carried down into the soundboard which amplifies them.

Muffler Felt

The muffler felt, also known as the damper, is a strip of felt attached to the damper mechanism.

When the damper is engaged, it presses against the strings, stopping their vibrations and thus silencing the sound. This allows for control over the length of time a note sounds.

Pressure Bar

The pressure bar, also known as the agraffe, is a metal bar that helps guide the strings and maintain their positioning.

It also helps control the point at which the hammer strikes the string, ensuring a consistent tone.


The keybed is the solid foundation upon which the keys rest. It must be firm and stable to support the keys and action parts, allowing for precise movement and control.

Hammer Rail

The hammer rail, or hammer rest rail, is where the hammers return to rest after striking the strings. It ensures the hammers are correctly aligned and ready for their next strike.

Hitch Pins

Hitch pins are found at the end of the strings, opposite the tuning pins. They anchor the strings to the cast iron plate, maintaining the tension on the strings once they are tuned.

The Piano’s Structure and Materials

Piano Frame

The frame, also known as the plate or harp, is a large metal component that supports the high tension of the strings. It’s typically cast from iron, providing the strength needed to withstand the cumulative tension of the strings, which can amount to 20 tons or more in a grand piano.

Woods in Pianos

Wood plays a significant role in the construction of pianos. Different types of wood are chosen for their specific properties.

For example, spruce is often used for the soundboard due to its excellent resonance qualities, while hard rock maple is commonly used for the pin block because of its strength and durability. The keys are also typically made of wood, covered with either plastic or ivory.

Felt in Pianos

Felt is used extensively in pianos, most notably on the hammers, where it is crucial in determining the quality of the sound.

When the hammer strikes a string, the felt helps to produce a rich, rounded tone. Felt is also used on the dampers, where it effectively stops the vibration of the strings.

Metals in Pianos

Apart from the iron frame, other metals are used in various parts of the piano. High-tensile steel wire is used for the strings, chosen for its strength and elasticity.

Copper is sometimes wound around the lower-pitch strings to increase their mass without excessively increasing their stiffness. Finally, various small metal parts, such as screws and hinges, are used throughout the piano’s structure.

The Intricate Piano Action Mechanism

The piano action mechanism is a complex system of levers, springs, and hammers that translates the pianist’s touch on the keys into sound. This intricate mechanism is what allows for nuanced expression in piano music.

Working of the Action Mechanism

When a key is pressed, it acts as a lever to lift a component called the whippen. The whippen, in turn, pushes the jack, which propels the hammer towards the strings, causing them to vibrate and produce sound. After striking the strings, the hammer immediately rebounds, allowing the strings to vibrate freely.

Whippen, Jack, and Repetition Lever

The whippen, jack, and repetition lever are key components of the action mechanism. The whippen is a complex piece that initiates the action when a key is pressed. The jack is a small lever that pushes the hammer towards the strings. The repetition lever enables quick repetition of notes by assisting the reset of the hammer after each strike.

Backcheck and Damper Lift Rod

The backcheck catches the hammer after it strikes the strings, preventing it from bouncing back and striking the strings again. This control is crucial for playing staccato notes and quick passages.

The damper lift rod, connected to the key, lifts the damper off the strings when the key is pressed, allowing the strings to vibrate. When the key is released, the damper returns to the strings, stopping the vibration and silencing the note. The control of the dampers is essential for the expressive control of sound in piano music.

Different Types of Pianos and Their Components

Pianos come in various shapes and sizes, each with its unique components and characteristics. The two primary types are grand pianos and upright pianos, with digital/electric pianos also becoming increasingly popular.

Grand vs Upright Pianos

Grand pianos are horizontally built with the strings and soundboard laid out flat, allowing for a more direct transfer of energy from the keys to the hammers and strings. This design provides a more responsive touch and richer sound, making grand pianos the preferred choice for concert performances. They come in several sizes, from petite grand to concert grand.

Upright pianos, on the other hand, are vertical, with the strings running vertically. They are more compact and suitable for smaller spaces. While they may not offer the same level of tonal quality and responsiveness as grand pianos, modern upright pianos can still deliver impressive performance and are popular for home use due to their space efficiency and affordability.

Electric/Digital Pianos

Electric or digital pianos are designed to digitally reproduce the sound of an acoustic piano. They have weighted keys to mimic the feel of an acoustic piano and use digital samples or synthesis to create the sound. Some models offer a variety of sounds beyond just piano, such as organ, strings, and more.

Unique components in digital pianos include electronic sensors for key and pedal actions, speakers for sound output, and often a screen or interface for selecting different options. Many digital pianos also offer MIDI connectivity, allowing them to interface with computers and recording equipment.

Maintenance and Care for Piano Parts

Importance of Regular Maintenance

Regular maintenance is crucial to keep a piano in good working order and extend its lifespan. A well-maintained piano not only sounds better but also maintains its value over time. Regular tuning, for example, is vital to ensure the piano stays at the correct pitch and helps prevent damage to the instrument.

In addition to tuning, regular maintenance might involve voicing (adjusting the tone by modifying the hammers’ felt), regulation (adjusting the action mechanism for optimal performance), and occasional repairs or replacement of parts.

Tips for Cleaning and Caring for Different Parts

Keyboard: Clean the keys with a soft, dry cloth. If more cleaning is needed, dampen the cloth slightly with water or a mild soap solution, but be careful not to let any liquid seep between the keys. Never use abrasive cleaners, as they can damage the keys.

Wood Surfaces: Dust regularly with a soft cloth. Avoid using furniture polish, as it can build up over time and interfere with the wood’s natural resonance.

Internal Parts: It’s best to leave the cleaning of internal parts to professional piano technicians, as these parts are delicate and can be easily damaged. However, you can help prevent dust build-up by keeping the lid closed when the piano is not in use.

General Care: Try to maintain a stable environment with moderate temperature and humidity, as fluctuations can cause the wood to warp and the piano to go out of tune. Also, avoid placing the piano near a heat source, air conditioner, or in direct sunlight.

Remember, a piano is not just a musical instrument but also a significant investment. Proper care and maintenance will ensure it brings joy to your life for many years to come.


Understanding the various parts of a piano and their functions can greatly enhance your appreciation for this remarkable instrument. It’s fascinating to realize how the intricate interplay of different components – from the keys and hammers to the strings and soundboard – culminates in the beautiful music that a piano can produce.

But beyond mere understanding, this knowledge can also be practical. It can help you take better care of your instrument, troubleshoot problems, and communicate more effectively with piano technicians. And if you’re in the market for a new piano, it can guide you in making an informed choice.

So whether you’re a budding pianist, a seasoned performer, or simply a lover of music, I encourage you to continue learning about the piano. Delve into its inner workings, marvel at its complexity, and let this deepen your connection to the music. After all, the more you understand the piano, the more you can truly appreciate the magic it creates.

FAQs about Piano Anatomy

Sure, here are some frequently asked questions about the parts of a piano:

  1. What are the main parts of a piano? The main parts of a piano include the keys, strings, hammers, dampers, soundboard, pedals, and casing.
  2. What is the function of the piano’s cast iron plate? The cast iron plate, or frame, supports the immense tension exerted by the stretched strings, which can total up to 20 tons in a grand piano. It also helps reflect the vibrations from the strings back into the soundboard.
  3. How do the strings on a piano produce sound? When a key is pressed, it triggers a hammer to strike a string or set of strings. This causes the strings to vibrate at a specific frequency, producing sound. The vibrations are transferred through the bridge to the soundboard, which amplifies the sound.
  4. What role does the damper play in a piano? The damper, or muffler felt, stops the vibrations of the strings when engaged. This silences the sound and allows for control over the length of time a note sounds.
  5. Why do pianos have wheels? Wheels, or casters, are found on some pianos, particularly grand pianos, to facilitate moving the instrument. They allow the piano to be rolled carefully to a new location. However, moving a piano should be done with extreme care to avoid damaging the instrument or the floor.
  6. What is the keybed in a piano? The keybed is the solid foundation upon which the keys rest. It must be firm and stable to support the keys and action parts, allowing for precise movement and control.
  7. What is the purpose of hitch pins in a piano? Hitch pins anchor the strings to the cast iron plate at the end opposite the tuning pins. They maintain the tension on the strings once they are tuned.


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