Leonard Cohen, a Canadian singer-songwriter, poet, and novelist, is revered as one of the greatest songwriters of our time. His profound lyrics and distinctive voice have resonated with audiences worldwide, earning him a place in the pantheon of music legends. Among his extensive repertoire, one song stands out for its universal appeal and timeless quality – “Hallelujah.”

“Hallelujah,” first released on Cohen’s 1984 album “Various Positions,” is a hauntingly beautiful piece that masterfully blends secular and religious themes. Its profound lyrics, set to a simple melody, have captivated listeners for decades, making it one of the most covered songs in the history of popular music. This article delves into the rich history and profound meaning of this iconic song.

The Origin of “Hallelujah”

“Hallelujah” was born out of Leonard Cohen’s artistic struggle and personal reflection. The song’s creation took place in the early 1980s, a period marked by Cohen’s deep introspection and spiritual exploration.

Cohen reportedly wrote around 80 draft verses for “Hallelujah,” over a span of several years. He once remarked in an interview that he filled two notebooks writing lyrics for the song, indicating the depth of his commitment and the intensity of his creative process. The song, which was finally whittled down to four verses, was a testament to Cohen’s painstaking dedication to his craft.

“Hallelujah” was first released in December 1984 on Leonard Cohen’s album “Various Positions.” However, it didn’t initially make an impact. The album was met with mixed reviews, and “Hallelujah” was largely overlooked. It wasn’t until later that the song started to gain recognition and appreciation, setting the stage for its journey towards becoming a timeless classic.

The Lyrics and Their Meaning

“Hallelujah” is a song of contrasts and complexities, with lyrics that weave together both religious and secular themes. The song’s verses are filled with biblical references, including allusions to the stories of King David and Samson, yet they also touch on universal human experiences such as love, loss, and desire.

In the first verse, Cohen uses the biblical story of King David, who “played a secret chord that pleased the Lord.” However, the song quickly transitions from this spiritual high point to the more earthly and flawed aspects of life, reflecting on love that has grown cold and the feeling of disillusionment.

The chorus, repeated after each verse, is a simple but powerful “Hallelujah.” This word, a Hebrew expression meaning “praise be to God,” is used in many different contexts in the song. Sometimes it seems to be a cry of despair, other times an expression of joy or resignation. This fluctuation gives the song its deep emotional resonance.

Interpreting the song’s main message can be subjective, as Cohen himself stated that “it’s a desire to affirm my faith in life, not in some formal religious way but with enthusiasm, with emotion.” It could be inferred that “Hallelujah” is about continuing to find reasons to praise, to express that ‘hallelujah’, even amidst pain and hardship. It’s a testament to the endurance of the human spirit and the power of hope and faith.

Influences and Inspirations

The biblical stories of King David and Samson, which are central to the lyrics of “Hallelujah,” were significant influences in Cohen’s writing. These stories, rich with human experience and emotion, provided a fertile ground for Cohen to explore themes of faith, love, loss, and redemption.

King David, a poet, and musician in the Bible, is portrayed in the song as a flawed yet deeply spiritual figure. Similarly, the story of Samson, a man endowed with supernatural strength who is ultimately betrayed by his lover Delilah, echoes themes of love and betrayal that run through the song.

Cohen’s Jewish background also played a significant role in shaping “Hallelujah.” Raised in a Jewish household, Cohen was familiar with these biblical stories from a young age. His understanding and interpretation of these stories, coupled with his own personal experiences and introspections, informed the religious and spiritual overtones of the song.

Moreover, the use of ‘Hallelujah’ – a Hebrew expression of praise to God – further underscores the influence of his Jewish heritage. It’s worth noting that Cohen employs the term in a broader context, using it to express a range of human emotions and experiences, thereby giving the song a universal appeal.

Critical Reception and Impact

“Hallelujah” had a humble beginning. When it was first released as part of Cohen’s “Various Positions” album in 1984, the song didn’t attract much attention. The album itself received mixed reviews from critics and was initially even rejected by Cohen’s US record label for not being commercially viable.

However, “Hallelujah” began its slow ascent to fame in the early 1990s, when John Cale and later Jeff Buckley covered the song. Buckley’s rendition, in particular, was highly acclaimed and is often considered one of the best versions of “Hallelujah.” These covers brought the song out of obscurity and into the limelight.

Since then, “Hallelujah” has been covered by over 300 artists in various languages, making it one of the most performed songs in history. Each cover has contributed to the song’s growing popularity and enduring appeal.

The impact of “Hallelujah” on popular culture is significant. It has been featured in numerous films, television shows, and commercials, further cementing its status as a cultural icon. From dramatic moments in TV series to poignant scenes in movies, “Hallelujah” has become synonymous with emotionally charged narratives, its timeless lyrics and melody resonating with audiences worldwide.

Cover Versions and Their Influence

“Hallelujah” has been covered by a diverse range of artists, each bringing their unique interpretation to the song. Among the most notable is Jeff Buckley’s version, released on his 1994 album “Grace.” Buckley’s rendition, characterized by his emotive vocals and stripped-back arrangement, is often considered one of the greatest covers of all time. This version played a significant role in boosting the song’s popularity and introducing it to a new generation of listeners.

Other notable covers include those by Rufus Wainwright, featured in the soundtrack of the animated film “Shrek,” and k.d. lang, who performed a powerful rendition at the 2010 Winter Olympics opening ceremony. These versions further expanded the song’s reach and influence.

The sheer number of “Hallelujah” covers is a testament to the song’s versatility and universal appeal. Each artist brings their own style and interpretation to the song, yet the core message of enduring faith and resilience remains consistent. Whether it’s a soulful rendition, a stripped-down acoustic cover, or a full orchestral performance, “Hallelujah” continues to touch listeners with its profound lyrics and timeless melody.


“Hallelujah” stands as a testament to Leonard Cohen’s genius as a songwriter and his profound understanding of the human condition. From its humble beginnings to its ascent as one of the most covered songs in music history, “Hallelujah” embodies a rare blend of spiritual depth and universal appeal that transcends cultural and musical boundaries.

Despite the initial lukewarm reception, the song has grown into an undeniable classic, its influence felt across generations and genres. It is a shining example of Cohen’s ability to touch upon the deepest aspects of human experience with grace and poignancy.

In the context of Cohen’s career, “Hallelujah” is undoubtedly a defining work. Yet, its significance extends beyond Cohen’s personal discography. The song has become a part of our collective cultural fabric, a touchstone in popular music that continues to inspire and move audiences around the world.

In the end, “Hallelujah” is more than just a song. It is a hymn of hope and resilience, a celebration of the human spirit in all its complexity and beauty. And for that, we continue to sing its praises. Hallelujah.

Frequently Asked Questions about the History and Meaning of “Hallelujah” by Leonard Cohen

1. When was “Hallelujah” written and released?

“Hallelujah” was written in the early 1980s and was first released in December 1984 on Leonard Cohen’s album “Various Positions.”

2. What inspired Cohen to write “Hallelujah”?

Cohen was inspired by biblical stories, particularly those of King David and Samson, and his own personal experiences. His Jewish background also played a significant role in shaping the song.

3. What is the meaning of the lyrics in “Hallelujah”?

“Hallelujah” blends religious and secular themes, exploring human experiences such as love, loss, and desire. The song’s main message can be interpreted as finding reasons to praise, or express ‘hallelujah,’ even amidst hardship and pain.

4. How was “Hallelujah” initially received?

Upon its initial release, “Hallelujah” was largely overlooked. The album it was part of, “Various Positions,” received mixed reviews and was rejected by Cohen’s US record label.

5. How did “Hallelujah” gain popularity?

“Hallelujah” began gaining popularity in the early 1990s when it was covered by artists like John Cale and Jeff Buckley. Since then, it has been covered by over 300 artists in various languages, making it one of the most performed songs in history.

6. What is the impact of “Hallelujah” on popular culture?

“Hallelujah” has had a significant impact on popular culture. It has been featured in numerous films, television shows, and commercials. Its emotionally charged lyrics and melody have resonated with audiences worldwide, making it a cultural icon.

7. Who has covered “Hallelujah” and how have these covers influenced the song’s popularity?

“Hallelujah” has been covered by many artists, including Jeff Buckley, Rufus Wainwright, and k.d. lang. These covers have introduced the song to new audiences and contributed to its enduring popularity.

8. What is the legacy of “Hallelujah”?

Hallelujah” is considered a classic in music history and stands as one of Leonard Cohen’s defining works. Its universal appeal and profound lyrics continue to inspire and touch listeners around the world.


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